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Vasoactive intestinal peptides, also known as vasoactive intestinal peptides or VIP, are peptide hormones that are vasoactive in the gut. VIP is a peptide containing 28 amino acid residues that belongs to the glucagon/secretin superfamily and is a ligand of Class II G protein-coupled receptors. VIP is produced in many vertebrate tissues, including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain's hypothalamus. VIP stimulates cardiac contraction, causes vasodilation, increases glycogen breakdown, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes smooth muscles in the trachea, stomach and gallbladder. In humans, vasoactive intestinal peptides are encoded by VIP genes. The half-life (t ½) of VIP in the blood is about two minutes. VIP has an impact on a variety of organizations: In the digestive system, VIP appears to cause relaxation of smooth muscle (lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, gallbladder), stimulate secretion of water into pancreatic fluid and bile, and inhibit secretion and absorption of gastric acid from the intestinal cavity. Its role in the gut is to greatly stimulate the secretion of water and electrolytes, as well as relax intestinal smooth muscle, dilate peripheral blood vessels, stimulate the secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas and inhibit gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. These effects work together to increase motility. It also stimulates the secretion of pepsinogen by the main cell. VIP appears to be an important neuropeptide during inflammatory bowel disease because mast cell and VIP communication is upregulated in colitis such as Crohn's disease. It is also present in the heart and has a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. It causes coronary vasodilation and has positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. Research is under way to determine if it has a beneficial effect in treating heart failure. VIP stimulates vaginal lubrication in normal women, doubling the total amount of lubrication producedEmail : whatsapp: +8618931626169 wickr: lilywang

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